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The many waves of COVID-19 in European countries

COVID-19 has mainly spread through Europe in two waves: W1 between January and August 2020, and W2 which is still underway and started in September 2020. W1 originated in China and spread throughout Europe from Cyprus and Switzerland.W2 originated mainly in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil, where the number of deaths during summer 2020 was very high, while Europe was at the end of W1.W2 was more severe than W1 for several reasons: the season (winter); the lack of a common European strategy against the virus; no suitable information on oral hygiene and sanitation; viral drifts; controversial indications given by medical experts; the belief that chronic diseases are responsible for the deaths of elderly people; confusing information provided by media.

Authors: Umberto Cornelli, Giovanni Belcaro, Martino Recchia

Latest Release

COVID-19 vaccination in Europe

Facts, Hopes, and Fakes

The death rates after the start of the vaccination program are very different in the 47 countries representing Europe, although a very similar number of vaccine shots have been administered in the countries most affected by the pandemic. One exception to this is the UK, where the number of vaccinations is about three times higher. As in the rest of the world, a temporary decrease in the number of deaths in Europe was followed by an increase. However, the trends are different in each country, and a clear decrease is currently only taking place in ten European countries. Why do these differences exist? Why is there an increase in the number of deaths?The first cause is mistakes in the organization of the vaccine campaign in some countries. Often people had to wait in long queues outside vaccination centres in large cities, sometimes in cold weather. Everyone is waiting for herd immunity, but before that happens, if it ever happens, many more deaths will occur. Our real hope is a drift towards a non-lethal variant. In conclusion, COVID-19 has shown that the European Health System has to be completely reorganized in a proper manner.

Authors: Umberto Cornelli, Giovanni Belcaro, Martino Recchia

About the Authors

Prof Umberto Cornelli MD, PhD

  • Professor of Science Loyola University of Chicago Medical School
  • Professor of Nutrition in the Institute of Life Sciences (Bergamo)
  • Adjunct Professor  of Pharmacology  Loyola University of Chicago Medical School

Prof. Umberto Cornelli was born in Italy in 1945 and graduated in Medicine at the University of Milan. He was trained in Pharmacology and gained further experience developing general and CNS pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics.

He was involved in Clinical Pharmacology  and participated to the clinical development of  NSAIDs, antiulcer and antithrombotic drugs. All these drugs are currently on the market in the world; one of these, defibrotide, is considered a life saving drug in USA.

He started his collaboration with the Loyola University Medical School of Chicago in 1982 and currently is Adjunct professor of Pharmacology at the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics where he coordinates the studies related to the hypothesis of glycosaminoglycans and oxidative stress on Alzheimer’s disease.

Prof Gianni Belcaro MD, PhD

Director Irvine3 Vascular Lab & Microcirculation Vascular Surgery ClinicsTeaching: Angiology, Cardiology School, Chieti University Italy

Director of the Sealab (marine life laboratory researching of environmental causes of cardiovascular diseases)

Director of the PAP/PEA vascular screening program in Central Italy

Prizes and Awards:

Min. Aff. Esteri, (Foreign Office) Training Scholarship,

Bispebierg Hospital, Copehnagen,                                                      

British Council Scholarship                                                                   

Prizes: U. Manzoli for Cardiovascular Medicine

International Union of Angiology prize                          


Prof Martino Recchia PhD

Director of Biostatistics Center Statmed In Milan-Italy.

From 1971 to 1986 he was Head of the Biostatistic Unit at the Institute of Pharmacological Research “Mario Negri”. In 1972 he formed the Biostatistics and Biomathematics Group, which still exists today.

From 1982 to 1990 he is professor of applied statistics foundations for the evaluation of biological signals at the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan.

From 1993 to 1995 he is professor of biostatistics applied to animal experimentation at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan.

From 1999 to 2005 he held the Chair of Medical Statistics and Biometrics at the University of Humanitarian and Tecnological Sciences of Lugano, Faculty of Medicine, and also obtained the position of Director of the Institute of Statistics of the same University (Decree No. 121/SG/2000).

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